You are advised to spend 20 minutes on Questions 28-40.
GT Reading Sample: The lack of sleep
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on the Reading Passage below.
The Lack Of Sleep
It is estimated that the average man or woman needs between seven-and-a-half and eight hours’ sleep a night. Some can manage on a lot less. Baroness Thatcher, for example, was reported to be able to get by on four hours’ sleep a night when she was Prime Minister of Britain. Dr Jill Wilkinson, senior lecturer in psychology at Surrey University and co-author of ‘Psychology in Counselling and Therapeutic Practice’, states that healthy individuals sleeping less than five hours or even as little as two hours in every 24 hours are rare, but represent a sizeable minority.Section B
The latest beliefs are that the main purposes of sleep are to enable the body to rest and replenish, allowing time for repairs to take place and for tissue to be regenerated. One supporting piece of evidence for this rest-and¬repair theory is that production of the growth hormone somatotropin, which helps tissue to regenerate, peaks while we are asleep. Lack of sleep, however, can compromise the immune system, muddle thinking, cause depression, promote anxiety and encourage irritability.Section C
Researchers in San Diego deprived a group of men of sleep between Sam and lam on just one night, and found that levels of their bodies’ natural defences against viral infections had fallen significantly when measured the following morning. ‘Sleep is essential for our physical and emotional well-being and there are few aspects of daily living that are not disrupted by the lack of it’, says Professor William Regelson of Virginia University, a specialist in insomnia. ‘Because it can seriously undermine the functioning of the immune system, sufferers are vulnerable to infection.’Section D
For many people, lack of sleep is rarely a matter of choice. Some have problems getting to sleep, others with staying asleep until the morning. Despite popular belief that sleep is one long event, research shows that, in an average night, there are five stages of sleep and four cycles, during which the sequence of stages is repeated.
In the first light phase, the heart rate and blood pressure go down and the muscles relax. In the next two stages, sleep gets progressively deeper. In stage four, usually reached after an hour, the slumber is so deep that, if awoken, the sleeper would be confused and disorientated. It is in this phase that sleep-walking can occur, with an average episode lasting no more than 15 minutes.
|In the fifth stage, the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, the heartbeat quickly gets back to normal levels, brain activity accelerates to daytime heights and above and the eyes move constantly beneath closed lids as if the sleeper is looking at something. During this stage, the body is almost paralysed. This REM phase is also the time when we dream.
The passage has seven sections labelled A-G.
Which section contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 28-35 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
28. the different amounts of sleep that people require
29. an investigation into the results of sleep deprivation
30. some reasons why people may suffer from sleep disorders
31. lifestyle changes which can help overcome sleep-related problems
32. a process by which sleep helps us to remain mentally and physically healthy
33. claims about a commercialised man-made product for sleeplessness
34. the role of physical changes in sleeping habits
35. the processes involved during sleep
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage?
In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write:
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
36. Sleep can cure some illnesses.
37. The various stages of sleep occur more than once a night.
38. Dreaming and sleep-walking occur at similar stages of sleep.
39. Sleepers move around a lot during the REM stage of sleep.
40. The body temperature rises relatively early in elderly people.
36. NOT GIVEN